Je psychiatrie pozadu?

Psychiatrie stojí už od dob, kdy se stala samostatnou lékařskou disciplínou, ve stínu ostatních specializací. Nikdy se po vědecké stránce nevyvíjela tak rychle jako neurologie, onkologie či kardiologie. Díky úbytku léčeben pro choromyslné se psychiatrické služby v mnoha rozvinutých zemích postupně dostávají do stále bližšího profesního kontaktu s těmito a dalšími lékařskými obory. Psychiatrie nicméně dodnes obývá medicínský suterén - v rámci medicíny klinicky, mimo ni vědecky.

Od ostatních lékařských specializací se psychiatrie liší tím, že postrádá objektivní základ pro diagnózu. Ostatní lékařské obory svůj proces diagnostiky zdokonalily do té míry, že klinické vyšetřování pacientů vesměs vytlačily počítačové laboratorní testy. Psychiatrie je však stále závislá na interpretaci detailních anamnéz, které lze získat jen pečlivým a podrobným vyšetřováním a přímým dotazováním pacienta. Pro nejběžnější duševní poruchy - depresi, úzkost a schizofrenii -univerzální diagnostické testy jednoduše neexistují.

Počítačové programy, které vyhodnocují a zpracovávají pacientovy symptomy a určují psychiatrickou diagnózu, samozřejmě existují. Ty k tomu ale využívají stejná pravidla, která k interpretaci symptomů u pacientů používají sami psychiatři. Na výstupech těchto programů není nic absolutního, ačkoli jsou alespoň pokaždé stejné, což o psychiatrech nelze říci. Interpretace každého konkrétního případu se může koneckonců lišit a jediným řešením je pak odvolávat se na autoritu - ,,Já jsem starší a zkušenější než vy, takže moje diagnóza má přednost".

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