Tim Brinton

¿El poder militar se está volviendo obsoleto?

CAMBRIDGE – ¿El poder militar se volverá menos importante en las próximas décadas? Es cierto que la cantidad de guerras de gran escala entre estados sigue decayendo y que es improbable el enfrentamiento entre democracias avanzadas y sobre muchas cuestiones. Pero, como dijo Barack Obama en la ceremonia de aceptación del Premio Nobel de la Paz en 2009, “debemos empezar por reconocer la difícil verdad de que no erradicaremos el conflicto violento en nuestras vidas. Siempre habrá momentos en los que los países –de manera individual o en concierto- encontrarán que el uso de la fuerza no sólo es necesario sino moralmente justificable”.

Cuando la gente habla de poder militar, tiende a pensar en términos de los recursos que sustentan el comportamiento de poder duro de luchar y amenazar con luchar –soldados, tanques, aviones, barcos y demás-. Al final, si existe la presión de dar empellones, esos recursos militares importan. Napoleón genialmente dijo que “Dios está del lado de los grandes batallones” y Mao Zetung sostenía que el poder proviene del cañón de un arma.

En el mundo de hoy, sin embargo, los recursos militares van mucho más allá de las armas y los batallones y, el comportamiento de poder duro, más allá del combate y la amenaza de combate. El poder militar también se utiliza para ofrecer protección a aliados y asistencia a amigos. Este uso no coercitivo de los recursos militares puede ser una fuente importante de comportamiento de poder blando a la hora de armar agendas, persuadir a otros gobiernos y atraer apoyo en la política mundial.

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