Tim Brinton

Wird militärische Macht obsolet?

CAMBRIDGE – Wird die Bedeutung militärischer Macht in den nächsten Jahrzehnten schwinden? Es stimmt: Die Zahl großer Kriege zwischen Staaten nimmt ab und militärische Auseinandersetzungen zwischen entwickelten Demokratien und aufgrund einer Reihe von Konfliktursachen sind unwahrscheinlich. Allerdings formulierte Barack Obama anlässlich der Verleihung des Friedensnobelpreises 2009: „Wir müssen der ungeschminkten Wahrheit ins Auge sehen, dass wir in unserem Leben gewaltsame Konflikte nicht ausrotten werden. Es wird Zeiten geben, in denen Nationen - allein oder gemeinsam - den Einsatz ihres Militärs nicht nur für nötig, sondern auch für moralisch gerechtfertigt halten...”

Wenn man von militärischer Macht spricht, denkt man meistens an die Ressourcen, die der Hard Power, also dem Kampf oder der Kampfdrohung, zugrunde liegen – Soldaten, Panzer, Flugzeuge, Schiffe und so weiter. Wenn es dann schließlich hart auf hart kommt, zählen militärische Ressourcen. In einem berühmten Zitat sagte Napoleon: „Gott ist auf der Seite der stärksten Bataillone” und Mao Zedong meinte, dass die Macht aus dem Gewehrlauf stamme.

In der Welt von heute gehört mehr zu militärischen Ressourcen als Gewehre und Bataillone und Hard Power ist mehr als Kampf oder Kampfdrohung. Militärische Macht wird auch zum Schutz von Verbündeten und als Assistenzmaßnahmen für Freunde ausgeübt. Ein derartiger nicht mit Zwang verbundener Einsatz militärischer Ressourcen kann eine wichtige Quelle für Soft Power sein, wie die Ausarbeitung von Strategien, Überzeugungsarbeit an Regierungen und das Bemühen um Unterstützung in der Weltpolitik.

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