¿Es la justicia internacional la enemiga de la paz?

Hace sólo un poco más de quince años que se creó el primero de los tribunales internacionales contemporáneos para procesar a quienes cometen crímenes de guerra, crímenes contra la Humanidad y genocidio. Dicho tribunal, el Tribunal Penal Internacional para la Antigua Yugoslavia (TIAY) , pronto podrá impartir justicia a un nuevo acusado, tras la detención en Belgrado de Radovan Karadzic, dirigente de los serbios de Bosnia durante la guerra.

Sin embargo, ya existe un tema persistente en las críticas a dichos tribunales: con sus actuaciones para impartir justicia están obstaculizando la consecución de un fin más importante, la paz. Se han expresado esas críticas de forma más vociferante cuando se ha acusado de crímenes a jefes de Estado en ejercicio. Los cargos, presentados por el fiscal del Tribunal Penal Internacional contra el Presidente del Sudán Omar Hassan al-Bashir, de crímenes contra la Humanidad y genocidio en Darfur son el último ejemplo. De hecho, esta vez las denuncias del proceso judicial son más intensas y vehementes que en el pasado.

También fueron fuertes las quejas en 1995, cuando el fiscal del TIAY procesó a Karadzic y a su jefe militar, general Ratko Mladic, e incluso más fuertes cuando volvieron a ser procesados más adelante, en el mismo año, por la matanza de Srebrenica. Lo que espoleó en particular a los críticos fue el momento elegido para ese segundo procesamiento, pues se produjo justo antes de que comenzara la conferencia de paz de Dayton. Como se arriesgaban a ser detenidos, Karadzic y Mladic no acudieron a Dayton.

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