La justice internationale, un obstacle à la paix ?

Le premier tribunal international destiné à poursuivre les auteurs de crime de guerre, de crime contre l'humanité ou de génocide date d'une quinzaine d'années seulement. Dans ce cadre, le Tribunal pénal international pour l'ex-Yougoslavie (TPIY) pourrait bientôt rendre justice en jugeant un nouvel inculpé, après l'arrestation à Belgrade de Radovan Karadzic, le leader des Serbes de Bosnie pendant la guerre.

Néanmoins, ce type d'institution fait l'objet de critiques persistantes& : cherchant à rendre la justice, il constituerait un obstacle sur le chemin d'un objectif encore plus important, la paix. Ces critiques sont particulièrement virulentes lorsque des chefs d'Etat en exercice sont inculpés. L'inculpation du président soudanais Omad Hassan Al-Bachir pour crimes contre l'humanité et génocide au Darfour par le procureur de la Cour pénale internationale en est l'exemple le plus récent. Et cette fois-ci la dénonciation du processus judiciaire est plus véhémente que jamais.

Les critiques s'étaient déchaînées en 1995 lorsque le Tribunal pénal international pour l'ex-Yougoslavie (TPIY) avait inculpé le président de la République serbe de Bosnie, Radovan Karadzic, et le chef de l'armée, le général Ratko Mladic. Et elles ont encore redoublé d'intensité lorsqu'ils ont été inculpés une deuxième fois au cours de la même année pour le massacre de Serinera. Le moment de cette deuxième inculpation notamment a été vivement critiqué parce qu'elle intervenait juste avant le début de la conférence de paix de Dayton. Risquant une arrestation, Karadzic et Mladic ne sont pas allés à Dayton.

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