¿La bondad es natural?

Cuesta imaginar que alguien piense en la bondad como un problema. Sin embargo, Charles Darwin lo hizo. Las pequeñas abejas obreras que se sacrificaban para proteger sus colmenas –el máximo ejemplo de la bondad animal- mantuvieron a Darwin desvelado de noche.

Suponiendo que las ideas de Darwin sobre la evolución por selección natural fueran correctas (y, por supuesto, lo eran y lo son), entonces esta clase de altruismo debería ser extraordinariamente rara en la naturaleza. Si una mayor reproducción es toda la finalidad de la evolución por selección natural, entonces los altruistas deberían desaparecer –y rápido-. Pero no desaparecen y Darwin estaba tan asombrado por todo esto que se refirió al altruismo como un problema que podría resultar fatal para toda su teoría de la evolución.

De pronto la solución de este desagradable acertijo golpeó a Darwin como una tonelada de ladrillos. Las abejas obreras no estaban ayudando simplemente a un puñado de abejas cualquiera ; estaban protegiendo su colmena. Y su colmena contenía individuos especiales: parientes de sangre.

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