Ist Güte natürlich?

Es ist schwer vorstellbar, dass jemand Güte für ein Problem halten würde – Charles Darwin tat dies jedoch. Die kleinen Arbeitsbienen, die sich selbst opferten, um ihre Bienenstöcke zu schützen – das ultimative Beispiel für Güte im Tierreich –, ließen Darwin nachts keinen Schlaf finden.

Wenn Darwins Vorstellungen zur Evolution durch natürliche Auslese richtig waren (und das waren und sind sie selbstverständlich), dann sollte diese Art Altruismus in der Natur außerordentlich selten vorkommen. Wenn eine erhöhte Fortpflanzung das absolut Wichtigste in der Evolution durch natürliche Auslese ist, dann müssten Altruisten aussterben – und zwar schnell. Doch sterben sie nicht aus, und Darwin war darüber so verwundert, dass er vom Altruismus als einem Problem sprach, das sich als fatal für seine gesamte Evolutionstheorie erweisen könnte.

Dann traf die Lösung dieses tückischen Rätsels Darwin wie ein Blitzschlag. Die Arbeitsbienen halfen nicht einfach irgendwelchen Bienen; sie schützten ihren Bienenstock. Und in ihrem Bienenstock lebten besondere Bienen: Blutsverwandte.

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