Достаточно ли одной свободы?

Нужны ли демократиям ценности? Если взглянуть на фотографии, на которых американские солдаты пытают и унижают иракских пленных, этот вопрос покажется абсурдным. Но факт заключается в том, что развитие демократии исторически влекло за собой размывание общих ценностей и усиление личной автономии. Оно предполагало моральный агностицизм и многообразие значений, ни одно из которых не является священным или обязательным для всех.

Да, демократия воспитывает определённые общие ценности, но в подавляющем большинстве это либеральные ценности - иными словами, права личности торжествуют над коллективными обязательствами. Для современных демократов как можно большее уважение автономии личности, говоря словами Томаса Джефферсона, "самоочевидно". Но достаточно ли гражданских, политических прав и прав человека для того, чтобы гарантировать силу и выживание демократий? Достаточно ли у демократий достоинств для того, чтобы они смогли мобилизовать энергию, необходимую для победы над врагами - не исключая и самопожертвования?

Подобные вопросы никогда в прошлом не стояли так остро, отчасти потому, что фундаментальные демократические ценности были менее абстрактными, чем они кажутся сегодня. Эти ценности вдохновляли борьбу против нацизма и советского тоталитаризма, фашизма и военной диктатуры; во имя их была осуществлена деколонизация, во имя их меньшинства обрели равенство и достоинство. Демократическим ценностям, возможно, и свойственен односторонний уклон в сторону прав индивидуума, но как раз благодаря этому они приобрели универсальный характер, узаконивая борьбу против угнетения, где бы оно ни имело место.

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