自 由 足 够 了 吗?

民主需要价值观吗?这个问题在面对一张张美国士兵严刑逼供和侮辱伊拉克战俘的照片时似乎显得有些荒谬。但事实是,民主的进步历史上都会牵涉到价值观的侵蚀以及个人自主权的上升。这意味着道德的不可知论和它的多重意义,但其中没有一个是神圣和必须的。

民主的确支持着一些价值观,但这些价值观是压倒性的自由主义的价值观。换句话说,个人权利取代了集体的(或整个社会的)义务和职责。对现代民主主义者来说,对自治个人最完全的尊重就是象汤姆士·杰夫森说的"不言自明"。但是,是不是民间的、政治的、和人权足以保证民主的力量以及其生存呢?今天的民主是否已经美好得可以重新恢复打败敌人所需的精力、包括自我牺牲呢?

这些问题在过去从来没有象现在这么急切过,部分因为基本的民主价值观在过去似乎没有象现在这么抽象。它们被活生生地运用于打击纳粹和苏维埃极权主义、法西斯主义、以及军事独裁的斗争中。借着民主的名义,使非殖民主义取得了胜利,少数派获得了平等和尊严。民主的价值如果用来代表个人权利的话可能会片面,但这也会使它全球化,使不管发生在世界哪个角落的反对压抑的斗争合法化。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/vTYtF8s/zh;
  1. An employee works at a chemical fiber weaving company VCG/Getty Images

    China in the Lead?

    For four decades, China has achieved unprecedented economic growth under a centralized, authoritarian political system, far outpacing growth in the Western liberal democracies. So, is Chinese President Xi Jinping right to double down on authoritarianism, and is the “China model” truly a viable rival to Western-style democratic capitalism?

  2. The assembly line at Ford Bill Pugliano/Getty Images

    Whither the Multilateral Trading System?

    The global economy today is dominated by three major players – China, the EU, and the US – with roughly equal trading volumes and limited incentive to fight for the rules-based global trading system. With cooperation unlikely, the world should prepare itself for the erosion of the World Trade Organization.

  3. Donald Trump Saul Loeb/Getty Images

    The Globalization of Our Discontent

    Globalization, which was supposed to benefit developed and developing countries alike, is now reviled almost everywhere, as the political backlash in Europe and the US has shown. The challenge is to minimize the risk that the backlash will intensify, and that starts by understanding – and avoiding – past mistakes.

  4. A general view of the Corn Market in the City of Manchester Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

    A Better British Story

    Despite all of the doom and gloom over the United Kingdom's impending withdrawal from the European Union, key manufacturing indicators are at their highest levels in four years, and the mood for investment may be improving. While parts of the UK are certainly weakening economically, others may finally be overcoming longstanding challenges.

  5. UK supermarket Waring Abbott/Getty Images

    The UK’s Multilateral Trade Future

    With Brexit looming, the UK has no choice but to redesign its future trading relationships. As a major producer of sophisticated components, its long-term trade strategy should focus on gaining deep and unfettered access to integrated cross-border supply chains – and that means adopting a multilateral approach.

  6. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now