Les Bienfaits du libre-échange entre les États-Unis et quatre pays d'Amérique centrale sont-ils réels ?

Le décès de Ronald Reagan a obligé bien du monde à affronter une fois de plus l'héritage des guerres brutales de l'Amérique centrale au Guatemala, El Salvador et au Nicaragua qui se déroulèrent il y a 20 ans. Il semble bien que l'histoire sanglante de la région appartienne définitivement au passé, comme le montre la signature récente de l'Accord de libre-échange entre les Etats-Unis et l'Amérique centrale (ALEAC).

Le symbolisme attaché à cet accord est très prometteur, surtout au vu des guerres civiles et des interventions militaires américaines qui appartiennent maintenant au passé. Pourtant, les détails de cet accord offrent peu d'occasions de se réjouir pour une région qui doit encore se remettre des dévastations économiques dues à ces guerres.

Au coeur de l'ALEAC, on retrouve une inquiétude liée à la capacité des pays d'Amérique latine à libéraliser leurs économies. Mais la question essentielle reste de savoir si cet Accord assainira les économies. Bien que l'ALEAC représente une occasion importante dans la quête d'exansion de cette région pour accéder au marché américain, les nouvelles règles n'indiquent pas clairement si les producteurs latino-américains en ressortiront renforcés ou affaiblis.

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