法国是否无法改革?

一年前,法国全民公决否决欧盟宪法。去年秋天,法国郊区发生暴力浪潮。现在,反对由总理得维尔潘提出的、意在解决居高不下的青年人失业问题的“首次就业合同”法案引发的街头抗议使得世界再一次关注法国。

这三场事件尽管各不相同,但是都表明了法国社会生活中几个根深蒂固的特征。

首先,法国难以适应全球化的要求。2005年5月全民公决的失败,除了表现了普通民众对经济问题的不满,还表明法国选民中大多数人拒绝由欧盟政策施加的、确保人员、货物以及资本自由流通进而确保经济竞争主导地位的法规。类似地,去年秋天郊区暴力事件的爆发则反映了面对现代经济给那些缺乏适当培训以及教育的人所带来的严峻前景,无所适从的年轻人的沮丧和失意。

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