¿Quedó en el pasado el crecimiento impulsado por las exportaciones?

CAMBRIDGE.- Durante cinco décadas, los países en desarrollo que han podido formar industrias exportadoras competitivas se han visto recompensados con asombrosas tasas de crecimiento: Taiwán y Corea del Sur en los años sesenta; los países del sureste asiático como Malasia, Tailandia y Singapur en los años setenta; China en los años ochenta y, en última instancia, India en los años noventa.

En todos estos casos,  y en algunos otros, -otra vez, principalmente en Asia-, las reformas internas seguramente habrían producido crecimiento independientemente del comercio internacional. Sin embargo, es difícil que ese crecimiento hubiera sido igual de elevado –de un histórico 10% per capita al año o más- sin una economía global capaz de absorber las exportaciones de estos países.

Muchos países están tratando de imitar este modelo de crecimiento, pero rara vez han tenido éxito porque no existen las condiciones internas previas. Si entramos a los mercados mundiales sin contar con políticas dinámicas que aseguren la competitividad de algunas industrias modernas de manufacturas o de servicios, probablemente seguiremos siendo exportadores empobrecidos de recursos naturales y productos de uso intensivo de mano de obra como las prendas de vestir.

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