Wird Kolumbien zu einem zweiten Vietnam?

BOGOTÁ: Die Kokain-Produktion kann Zuwächse verzeichnen; die Friedensgespräche mit linken Guerrilleros ziehen sich hin; Amerikas 1,8 Milliarden US-Dollar umfassender “Plan Colombia” – der eigentlich dazu bestimmt war, spezielle Anti-Drogen-Einheiten dazu auszubilden und auszustatten, die Koka-Produktion auszurotten – wird als unbeholfene, eigennützige Intervention in die Angelegenheiten eines verwundbaren Nachbarn betrachtet. Die Zustände im heutigen Kolumbien sind so alarmierend, dass einige Amerikaner sich bereits darüber besorgt zeigen, dass das Land zu einem zweiten Vietnam werden könnte.

Und wie anders sah alles noch vor einem Jahrzehnt aus! Damals freuten sich die Kolumbianer über die Aussicht auf Frieden, politischen Wandel und wirtschaftlichen Aufschwung. In der Tat hatte der derzeit neu gewählte Präsident Cesar Gaviria, ein jugendlicher Politiker vom Typ Kennedys, seine Antrittsrede mit den Worten abgeschlossen: “Kolumbianer: Willkommen in der Zukunft!”

Die Demobilisierung einer großen Rebellen-Armee, der EPL, war ein Ereignis, an das sich die Kolumbianer nur zu gut erinnern konnten, so dass Fortschritte bei der Bekämpfung der beiden weiteren Guerrilla-Streitkräfte, die in dem anscheinend endlos währenden Guerrilla-Krieg des Landes unermüdlich zur Waffe griffen, so gut wie sicher zu sein schien. Sowohl die Nationale Befreiungsarmee (ELN) als auch die Revolutionären Bewaffneten Streitkräfte Kolumbiens (FARC) waren in den Jahren 1991-92 in augenscheinlich ernsthafte Gespräche eingebunden, die zu einem Ende ihrer Revolten führen sollten.

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