¿Es bueno o malo para los países pobres el mercantilismo chino?

CAMBRIDGE – La balanza comercial de China alcanzará otro enorme superávit este año. Mientras tanto, siguen aumentando las preocupaciones sobre la fuerza de la recuperación estadounidense. Ambos acontecimientos sugieren que China se verá nuevamente bajo presión para apreciar fuertemente su moneda a la alza. El conflicto con los Estados Unidos puede reavivarse durante las audiencias del Congreso sobre el renminbi que se llevarán a cabo en septiembre. Ahí, muchos instarán a la administración Obama a que aplique medidas punitivas si China no actúa.

La discusión sobre la moneda china se centra en la necesidad de reducir el superávit comercial de ese país y corregir los desequilibrios macroeconómicos globales. Muchos analistas esperan que con una moneda menos competitiva China exporte menos e importe más, haciendo una contribución positiva a la recuperación de los Estados Unidos y de otras economías.

En todas estas discusiones, la cuestión del renminbi se ve como un asunto entre los Estados Unidos y China, y los intereses de los países pobres apenas son escuchados, incluso en los foros multilaterales. Con todo, un aumento notable en el valor del renminbi puede tener implicaciones significativas para los países en desarrollo. No obstante, hay debates muy acalorados sobre si la revaluación del renminbi les conviene o no.

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