¿China está superando a Estados Unidos?

CAMBRIDGE – El siglo XXI es testigo del retorno de Asia a lo que podrían considerarse sus proporciones históricas en cuanto a población y economía del mundo. En 1800, Asia representaba más de la mitad de la población y la producción global. Para 1900, representaba apenas el 20% de la producción mundial –no porque a Asia le hubiera sucedido algo malo, sino más bien porque la Revolución Industrial había transformado a Europa y Norteamérica en el taller del mundo.

La recuperación de Asia comenzó con Japón, luego se trasladó a Corea del Sur y al sudeste asiático, empezando por Singapur y Malasia. Ahora la recuperación está centrada en China, y cada vez más involucra a la India, mientras en el proceso permite que cientos de millones de personas salgan de la pobreza.

Este cambio, sin embargo, también crea ansiedades respecto de las relaciones de poder cambiantes entre los estados. En 2010, China superó a Japón para convertirse en la segunda economía más grande del mundo. De hecho, el banco de inversión Goldman Sachs espera que el tamaño total de la economía china supere al de Estados Unidos para 2027.

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