Ouverture ou fermeture de la Chine?


Malgré les unes consacrées aux événements en Irak, la Chine fait de nouveau les gros titres des journaux : le pays est violemment critiqué pour ses faux-fuyants à propos de l'épidémie de SRAS et félicité pour son rôle soudainement constructif dans l'organisation et la préparation de négociations entre les États-Unis et la Corée du Nord sur les agissements nucléaires de la Corée du Nord. Qu'est-ce que ces deux réponses apparemment différentes nous apprennent sur la Chine et son rôle en évolution dans le monde ?

La réponse chinoise à l'épidémie de SRAS suggère une méfiance quasi automatique quand le monde extérieur semble empiéter sur le pays ou le menacer de manière possiblement embarrassante ou dangereuse. En ce sens, le passé historique d'humiliation que la Chine subit aux mains du Japon et de l'Occident aux 19 ème et début du 20 ème siècles exerce encore une forte influence, en dépit de l'émergence d'une « Chine nouvelle » et mondialisée ces vingt dernières années. Ces expériences se sont gravées profondément dans la psyché des Chinois, et même le relèvement politique et économique actuels de la Chine ne peut aider à dépasser un sens profond de victimisation et de griefs.

Il ne serait pas exagéré de dire que la Chine s'est fabriquée toute une identité à partir de cette victimisation historique. La position intellectuelle idéologique et maoïste est née de la théorie léniniste sur l'impérialisme qui, à l'aide de barrages de propagande sans fin contre le capitalisme, le colonialisme et l'hégémonie étrangère, tendait à renforcer le sens de l'humiliation nationale. Les porte-parole du parti disent encore souvent que telle ou telle intervention étrangère a « blessé le peuple chinois » quand ils pensent que la Chine a été injustement victimisée.

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