هل التقطت أميركا عدوى "المرض البريطاني"؟

بيركلي ـ لقد أصبحت رائحة الانحدار تعبق جو الولايات المتحدة. فالتجاوزات الخطيرة، والاستقطاب السياسي، والأزمة المالية الباهظة التكاليف، كل ذلك يثقل كاهل الاقتصاد. ويخشى بعض الخبراء الآن أن تكون أميركا على وشك الاستسلام لعدوى "المرض البريطاني".

إن الولايات المتحدة اليوم، المحكوم عليها بالنمو البطيء، مثلها كمثل بريطانيا المنهكة التي خرجت من الحرب العالمية الثانية، سوف تضطر إلى الحد من التزاماتها الدولية. وهذا من شأنه أن يترك المجال للقوى الصاعدة مثل الصين، ولكنه سوف يعرض العالم أيضاً لفترة من عدم اليقين الجغرافي السياسي المفرط.

وحين نفكر في هذه الاحتمالات والتوقعات، فمن الأهمية بمكان أن نفهم طبيعة المرض البريطاني. ليس الأمر ببساطة أن النمو في أميركا وألمانيا كان أسرع من النمو في بريطانيا بعد عام 1870. فمن الطبيعي على أية حال أن تنمو البلدان التي تأخر نموها بسرعة، كما هي الحال بالنسبة للصين اليوم. بل كانت المشكلة تتلخص في فشل بريطانيا في أواخر القرن التاسع عشر في دفع اقتصادها إلى المستوى التالي.

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