Schutz für einen gespaltenen Irak

OXFORD – Die Vereinigten Staaten und ihre Verbündeten stehen im Irak vor einer weiteren bedeutenden politischen Herausforderung. Die Luftschläge gegen den Islamischen Staat mögen die Kämpfer der Organisation aus entscheidenden Regionen vertrieben haben, aber nach Lage der Dinge wird man wohl Truppen brauchen, um die befreiten Gebiete zu halten und zu verwalten.

Die Sicherung des Irak erfordert daher eine wirkungsvolle Kraft vor Ort und deshalb zählt auch der Wiederaufbau der irakischen Armee zur Strategie von US-Präsident Barack Obama.  Um dieses Ziel zu erreichen, gilt es allerdings drei miteinander zusammenhängende Hindernisse zu überwinden: nämlich die militärische Unerfahrenheit der irakischen Führung, Korruption und Vetternwirtschaft sowie Unklarheiten hinsichtlich des Ausmaßes externer Unterstützung.  

Wenn Staaten auseinanderbrechen, gehen auf die einzelnen Teile des Staates manchmal Streitkräfte über, die in ausreichendem Maße in der Lage sind, ein Minimum an Regierungsgewalt aufrecht zu erhalten. Das kommt häufiger vor, wenn ein Staat aufgrund eines bewaffneten Konflikts auseinanderbricht. In diesem Fall hängt die Stabilität davon ab, ob die fähigsten militärischen Führungskräfte ihre Positionen behalten dürfen.    

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