Irak : Le mirage des emplois pour la paix

Alors que les premières troupes américaines arrivent en renfort en Irak, conformément à « l’afflux» promis par le président américain Bush, une autre question concernant la nouvelle politique de Washington pour empêcher une guerre civile totale se pose. L’utilisation de fonds américains pour rouvrir les entreprises d’État irakiennes peut-elle amener les jeunes hommes à abandonner l’insurrection et les milices confessionnelles ? L’idée semble logique : un homme avec un emploi correct lui permettant de vivre décemment a-t-il toujours des raisons de combattre les Américains ou ses concitoyens ?

Malheureusement, il est peu probable que cette stratégie permette de mettre fin à la violence généralisée. Les entreprises d’État étaient autrefois la pierre angulaire de la politique économique de Saddam Hussein. Mais portées à bout de bras par des contrats militaires, elles n’ont jamais été ni bien gérées, ni efficaces. Bien qu’employant beaucoup de monde, elles produisaient peu, tout comme les entreprises étatiques en faillite de l’ancienne Union soviétique.

De plus, à l’exception des secteurs pétrolier et de l’électricité, ces entreprises n’employaient pas un pourcentage élevé de la population. Les quelques 180 entreprises dépendant du ministère de l’Industrie, qui contrôle toutes les entreprises manufacturières appartenant à l’État, n’ont jamais employé beaucoup plus de 100.000 personnes, dans un pays avec une population de près de 27 millions d’habitants.

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