Irak : des balles contre des bulletins de vote

Quand la guerre en Irak a débuté en 2003, l'administration Bush caressait d'ambitieux projets : à l'image de l'Allemagne et du Japon post-1945, une longue et paisible occupation était envisagée, pendant laquelle l'augmentation de la production de pétrole assurerait une prospérité grandissante en même temps que les structures démocratiques seraient édifiées pièce par pièce. Le fondement devait en être une constitution libérale, voire post-moderne, avec en prime la garantie de 25 % de sièges parlementaires assurés aux femmes.

L'Irak actuel ne connaît ni paix, ni prospérité. La constitution qui doit être votée le 15 octobre prochain inclut cette règle des 25 %, mais n'a rien de libéral. La disposition-clé (article 2) stipulant qu'aucune loi ne peut contredire “les lois incontestées de l'Islam” viole les principes de base de la souveraineté parlementaire, et empêchera la législation de correspondre aux standards internationaux.

Par exemple, l'âge du consentement aux rapports sexuels pour les filles ne peut être élevé au-dessus de neuf ans, car Mahomet lui-même avait une épouse de neuf ans. Il en découle que des fillettes de neuf ans sont également adultes en regard de la loi pénale, et passables de la peine de mort pour, par exemple, conversion à une autre religion. Les chiites peuvent utiliser cette clause pour placer leurs ayatollahs au-dessus du parlement élu, comme en Iran, car eux seuls sont autorisés à déterminer les “lois” de l'Islam.

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