伊拉克的子弹和投票

当伊拉克战争在2003年爆发时,布什政府制定了一个雄心勃勃的计划:正如在1945年后的德国和日本一样,美国会(对伊拉克)实施长期的和平占领。在此期间,在逐步构筑民主架构的同时,扩大石油生产会确保繁荣水平的不断提高。这一架构的基础是一部自由主义,甚至是后现代的宪法,以保证妇女在议会占有25%的席位为一个完美的结果。

在今天的伊拉克,没有和平,也没有繁荣。将于10月15日进行公决的宪法提案中包括了那个25%的规定,但除此之外根本谈不上自由。关于没有任何法律能够与“无可争议的伊斯兰法规”相抵触的重要规定(第二条),违反了议会主权论的基本原则,并妨碍立法与国际标准接轨。

例如,女孩进行自愿性行为的年龄不能提高到9岁以上,因为穆罕默德本人就曾有一个年仅9岁的妻子。接下来还规定9岁的女孩在刑法中被认定为成年人,因而,如果她皈依另外一种宗教的话,就可能被判死刑。更广义而言,什叶派穆斯林可以利用这一规定,像伊朗那样,将他们的宗教领袖,阿亚图拉们置于民选的议会之上。因为他们被授权可以独立决定伊斯兰的“法规”。

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