L'autonomie du Japon et l'Irak

Tous les pays qui ont envoyé des troupes en Irak pour aider les USA sont soumis à des menaces, ainsi que le montre la décision des Philippines de retirer leur petit contingent. Mais pour le Japon, la question du maintien de son aide à la reconstruction de l'Irak va bien au-delà de ce point précis. Elle concerne au plus près, la notion de sécurité et la définition de ce qu'est l'intérêt national du Japon.

Pendant toute la Guerre froide, la politique de sécurité nationale du Japon semblait osciller entre deux attitudes : donner la priorité à l'ONU ou à l'alliance avec les USA. Mais intrinsèquement, c'est la priorité à l'alliance avec les USA qui tendait à l'emporter. Cette tendance reste dominante encore aujourd'hui.

Mais les événements du 11 septembre ont poussé le Japon à réaliser qu'il doit faire preuve d'une plus grande autonomie et de plus d'indépendance d'esprit dans la formulation et la mise en œuvre de sa politique de sécurité nationale. Le paradigme de la sécurité internationale qui a longtemps dominé la réflexion du Japon sur sa politique de défense ayant changé, les décideurs politiques ont compris qu'ils devaient en faire autant. Aujourd'hui, le Japon doit avoir une politique de sécurité conforme à l'intérêt national, respectueuse de l'alliance et qui aille dans le sens de la coopération internationale.

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