Le clergŽ politique d'Iran

Le rŽgime thŽocratique iranien semble plus confiant que jamais. Sa position face ˆ l'Occident au sujet de son programme nuclŽaire, ainsi que ses liens avec la Syrie et son influence croissante au Liban et en Irak sugg�rent l'Žmergence d'une forte puissance rŽgionale. Mais alors que les analystes occidentaux et les voisins de l'Iran tirent la sonnette d'alarme, l'autoritŽ du rŽgime repose en fait sur des fondations instables.

La rŽvolution de 1979, qui a mis un terme ˆ la tradition monarchique iranienne, a crŽŽ un nouvel ordre politique basŽ sur les fondations thŽologiques chiites et donnant le pouvoir absolu ˆ un juriste-religieux chiite. Au cours de toute la longue histoire de l'Iran, les sŽminaires chiites ont exercŽ une grande influence sur la sociŽtŽ et la politique iraniennes, tout en Žtant considŽrŽs comme des institutions civiles. C'est ˆ partir de la rŽvolution iranienne que l'establishment sŽminariste a ŽtŽ considŽrŽ comme une source de lŽgitimitŽ politique.

Ce changement suivait la thŽorie du Òdirigeant-juristeÓ de l'Ayatollah Khomeini. Selon Khomeini, le dirigeant-juriste pouvait modifier les lois religieuses en fonction de son interprŽtation des besoins du rŽgime. Par consŽquent, l'interprŽtation religieuse, autrefois une fonction extr�mement dŽcentralisŽe prise en charge par plusieurs sŽminaires, se retrouvait concentrŽe entre les mains d'un dirigeant politique. De m�me, l'establishment sŽminariste n'Žtait plus une structure civile chargŽe uniquement des affaires religieuses, mais se transformait en parti idŽologique unifiŽ servant les intŽr�ts du rŽgime.

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