Deus e a mulher no Irão

PRINCETON – A minha avó foi uma das primeiras mulheres a estudar Matemática e Física na Universidade de Viena. Quando se formou, em 1905, a universidade atribuiu-lhe a sua mais alta distinção, um prémio marcado pela oferta de um anel gravado com as iniciais do imperador. Mas nenhuma mulher tinha sido anteriormente nomeada com tamanha distinção e o imperador Franz Joseph recusou-se a conceder-lhe o prémio.

Mais de um século depois, poderia pensar-se que, por esta altura, já teríamos superado a convicção de que as mulheres não condizem com os níveis mais elevados de educação, em qualquer área do conhecimento. Por isso, saber que mais de 30 universidades iranianas baniram o acesso das mulheres a mais de 70 cursos, que vão desde a Engenharia, Física Nuclear e Informática, até à Literatura Inglesa, Arqueologia e Administração, é perturbador. De acordo com Shirin Ebadi, a advogada iraniana, activista dos direitos humanos e vencedora do Prémio Nobel da Paz, as restrições fazem parte de uma política do governo para limitar as oportunidades das mulheres fora de casa.

As proibições são especialmente irónicas, dado que, segundo a UNESCO, o Irão tem a maior taxa de licenciados do sexo feminino, no mundo. No ano passado, as mulheres representavam 60% de todos os estudantes que foram aprovados nos exames universitários e as mulheres têm-se saído muito bem nas disciplinas tradicionalmente dominadas pelos homens, nomeadamente a engenharia.

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