Dieu et la Femme en Iran

PRINCETON – Ma grand-mère fut l’une des premières femmes à étudier la physique et les mathématiques à l’université de Vienne. A l’obtention de son diplôme en 1905, elle fut nommée par l’université pour recevoir la plus haute distinction qu’octroyait l’institution, un prix comprenant la remise d’une bague portant les initiales de l’empereur. Mais aucune femme n’avait jamais reçu cette distinction honorifique et l’empereur François-Joseph refusa de la lui accorder.

Après plus d’un siècle, l’on pourrait penser avoir surmonté l’idée que les femmes ne seraient pas aptes à suivre le niveau de scolarité le plus élevé, dans quelque matière que ce soit. Il est donc inquiétant d’apprendre que plus de 30 universités iraniennes ont exclu les femmes de plus de 70 disciplines, de l’ingénierie, la physique nucléaire, l’informatique à la littérature anglaise, l’archéologie et l’administration des affaires. Selon Shirin Ebadi, l’avocate iranienne militante des droits humains et lauréate du prix Nobel de la paix, ces exclusions font partie d’une politique gouvernementale visant à limiter les perspectives des femmes en dehors du foyer.

Cet ostracisme est d’autant plus ironique que, selon l’Unesco, l’Iran compte le taux le plus élevé de lycéennes au monde. L’an dernier, elles représentaient 60 pour cent des étudiants passant des examens universitaires et les femmes se sont imposées dans des domaines traditionnellement dominés par les hommes, comme l’ingénierie.

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