Iran negotiations UNIS Vienna

L'accord avec l'Iran aurait dû être signé il y a 10 ans

ROME – La seule chose que l'on peut regretter à propos de l'accord sur le nucléaire auquel sont parvenus l'Iran et le groupe P5+1 (les 5 membres permanents du Conseil de sécurité - la Chine, la Grande-Bretagne, la France, la Russie et les USA - plus l'Allemagne) à Vienne ce mois-ci est qu'il n'ait pas été signé 10 ans plus tôt. Il a fallu attendre des années pour que le bon sens diplomatique l'emporte, et pendant tout ce temps le Moyen-Orient a subi une myriade de tensions qui auraient pu être évitées, et il a perdu des occasions de coopération en matière de sécurité.

De 2003 à 2006, l'Iran a clairement dit qu'il acceptait les principales mesures qui figurent dans le récent accord, notamment celles qui empêchent d'utiliser l'uranium et le plutonium pour faire une bombe et celles qui prévoient des mécanismes de surveillance renforcée pour identifier très tôt toute avancée vers l'arme nucléaire. Tout ce que l'Iran voulait en échange, hormis la levée des sanctions parallèlement à la mise en œuvre de l'accord, était la reconnaissance de son droit formel à enrichir l'uranium.

En 2003-2004 lors des négociations avec l'UE, pour favoriser une conclusion positive, l'Iran a volontairement gelé son programme d'enrichissement de l'uranium qui était minimal. Il a aussi affirmé sa volonté d'appliquer le "protocole additionnel", acceptant ainsi un contrôle beaucoup plus strict et de bien plus grande envergure que celui habituellement mis en place par l'Agence internationale pour l'énergie atomique.

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