Invocatio Dei y la Constitución Europea

Los círculos liberales progresistas han recibido con burla, e incluso con desprecio, la exigencia de que el preámbulo a la Constitución de la Unión Europea incluya una referencia a Dios y/o a las "raíces cristianas" de Europa. Se dice que una referencia de ese tipo iría en contra de la tradición constitucional común europea de neutralidad del Estado en asuntos religiosos. También infringiría el compromiso político con una sociedad tolerante y multicultural. Pero lo opuesto es lo cierto: una referencia a Dios es tanto constitucionalmente permisible como políticamente indispensable.

En materia constitucional, Europa presenta una riqueza característica. Por derecho positivo constitucional, todos los miembros de la UE, bajo la tutela de la Convención Europea sobre Derechos Humanos, deben respetar el principio de "Estado agnóstico o imparcial", que garantiza tanto la libertad de creencias como la libertad de no tener ninguna. En toda Europa existe un grado notable de homogeneidad, aun cuando en algunos temas dudosos, tales como la utilización de tocados religiosos o de crucifijos, los distintos miembros de la UE usan métodos diferentes para mantener el delicado equilibrio entre la libertad de creencias y la libertad para carecer de ellas.

Pero en lo que se refiere a simbolismo e iconografía constitucional, Europa es extraordinariamente heterogénea. En un extremo hay países como Francia, cuya constitución define al Estado como laico. En el otro, están países como Dinamarca y el Reino Unido, donde existe una religión de Estado establecida. En el Reino Unido, el soberano no es sólo jefe de Estado, sino también de la Iglesia. En medio, hay Estados como Alemania, cuya constitución, en su preámbulo, hace una referencia explícita a Dios, o Irlanda, donde el preámbulo habla de la Divina Trinidad.

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