Invocatio Dei et la Constitution européenne

Dans les cercles politiques de gauche, l'inscription au Préambule de la Constitution de l'Union européenne d'une référence à Dieu ou aux " racines chrétiennes " de l'Europe a été traitée avec dérision, voire mépris. Une telle référence serait source de problèmes vis-à-vis de la tradition constitutionnelle de neutralité de l'État en matière de religion commune à toute l'Europe. Cela irait également à l'encontre de l'engagement politique de l'Europe pour une société tolérante et multiculturelle. L'inverse est pareillement vrai : faire référence à Dieu est tout autant acceptable d'un point de vue constitutionnel qu'indispensable d'un point de vue politique.

D'un point de vue constitutionnel, l'Europe offre une certaine richesse. En matière de législation constitutionnelle, tous les États membres de l'Union européenne, sous la tutelle de la Convention européenne des droits de l'homme, se sont engagés sur le principe d'un " État agnostique ou impartial ", qui garantit aussi bien la liberté de religion que la laïcité. À travers toute l'Europe, il existe un degré d'homogénéité remarquable, même si sur certaines questions marginales, telles que les couvre-chefs religieux ou les crucifix dans les écoles, différents États membres gèrent différemment le difficile équilibre entre la liberté de religion et la laïcité .

Cependant, en matière de symbolisme et d'iconographie constitutionnels, l'Europe est remarquablement hétérogène. D'un côté, on trouve les pays tels que la France, dont la Constitution définit l'État comme laïque . De l'autre, on trouve des pays tels que le Danemark ou le Royaume-Uni qui possèdent une religion d'État officielle.

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