Wirtschaftliche Entwicklung durch Investitionen in die Gesundheit

Am Millenniumsgipfel der Vereinten Nationen im September 2000 verpflichteten sich 180 Staatschefs aus aller Welt, bis 2015 substanzielle Fortschritte in der Verbesserung der Lebensbedingungen für die Armen in der Welt zu erzielen. Einige der wesentlichen Internationalen Entwicklungsziele in der Millenniumserklärung beziehen sich direkt auf Gesundheitsfragen, vor allem auf die Kontrolle epidemischer Krankheiten und die Verminderung der Sterblichkeitsrate bei werdenden Müttern und kleinen Kindern. Um die am Gipfel formulierten Ziele mit Nachdruck zu verfolgen, bat mich Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland den Vorsitz einer Expertenkommission zu Makroökonomie und Gesundheit zu übernehmen. Das Ziel dieser Kommission war die Erarbeitung einer Strategie zur Umsetzung der Millenniumsentwicklungsziele in Gesundheitsfragen und Armutsbekämpfung. Am 20. Dezember 2001 veröffentlichte die Kommission die Ergebnisse ihrer Arbeit.

Eine besondere Herausforderung für unsere Kommission waren die sich rasch ausbreitenden epidemischen Krankheiten, die die ärmsten Ländern der Welt, vor allem in Sub-Sahara-Afrika heimsuchen. Obwohl es am Beginn der zweijährigen Untersuchung höchst unterschiedliche Meinungen gab, gelangte die Kommission nach Aufarbeitung von Anschauungsmaterial aus aller Welt dennoch zu einem breiten Konsens.

Die wichtigsten Ergebnisse sind schnell zusammengefasst: Zunächst ist festzuhalten, dass das Krankheitselend in den ärmsten Ländern ein schwerwiegendes Hemmnis für ihren wirtschaftlichen Fortschritt darstellt. Zweitens sterben Millionen verarmter Menschen an verhüt- und behandelbaren Infektionskrankheiten, nur weil sie keinerlei Zugang zu einem Gesundheitssystem haben. Drittens wäre es mit dem Einsatz bereits vorhandener Technologien möglich, am Ende dieses Jahrzehnts jährlich 8 Millionen Menschenleben zu retten, allerdings nur, wenn reiche Länder die armen darin unterstützen, Zugang zu diesen Technologien zu erhalten.

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