Russian planes Pavel Bednyakov/ Xinhua via ZUMA Press

Os novos intervencionistas

MUNIQUE – As consequências da intervenção da Rússia na Síria vão muito além do Médio Oriente. A campanha militar do Kremlin pendeu o impasse a favor do governo e descarrilou os esforços para elaborar um compromisso político para acabar com a guerra. Marca igualmente o início de uma nova era na geopolítica, em que as intervenções militares em grande escala não são realizadas por coligações ocidentais, mas por países que agem de forma redutoramente egocêntrica, muitas vezes em violação do direito internacional.

Desde o fim da Guerra Fria, o debate sobre a acção militar internacional tem colocado poderosas potências ocidentais intervencionistas contra os países mais fracos, como a Rússia e a China, cujos líderes argumentaram que a soberania nacional é sagrada e inviolável. Os acontecimentos recentes na Síria constituem mais uma prova de que a situação se está a inverter. Enquanto o Ocidente está a perder o ímpeto de intervir (especialmente quando a intervenção que envolve tropas terrestres), países como a Rússia, a China, o Irão e a Arábia Saudita têm tido uma intervenção crescente nos assuntos dos seus vizinhos.

Na década de 1990, após os genocídios no Ruanda e nos Balcãs, os países ocidentais desenvolveram a doutrina da chamada intervenção humanitária. "A responsabilidade de proteger" (coloquialmente conhecida como "R2P" [em inglês]) responsabilizava os países pelo bem-estar do seu povo e impunha à comunidade internacional a obrigação de intervir quando os governos não conseguiam proteger os civis das atrocidades maciças, ou quando os próprios governos ameaçavam a população civil. A doutrina abalou o conceito tradicional de soberania nacional e, em países como a Rússia e a China, passou rapidamente a ser considerada como pouco mais do que uma cortina de fumo para a mudança de regime apoiada pelo Ocidente.

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