Russian planes Pavel Bednyakov/ Xinhua via ZUMA Press

Les nouveaux interventionnistes

MUNICH – L'onde de choc générée par l'intervention russe en Syrie se fait sentir bien au-delà du Moyen-Orient. La campagne militaire du Kremlin fait pencher la balance en faveur du gouvernement d'Assad et empêche un compromis politique qui mettrait fin à la guerre. Elle annonce également le commencement d'une nouvelle ère géopolitique dans laquelle les interventions militaires à grande échelle ne sont plus le fait de coalitions occidentales, mais de pays qui défendent uniquement leur propre intérêt, souvent en contradiction avec le droit international.

A l'issue de la Guerre froide, le débat sur l'action militaire internationale opposait des puissances occidentales interventionnistes à des pays plus faibles comme la Russie et la Chine dont les dirigeants se revendiquaient d'une souveraineté nationale sacro-sainte et inviolable. L'évolution de la situation en Syrie est la preuve supplémentaire d'un  basculement. Alors que l'Occident est de moins en moins motivé pour intervenir (notamment avec des troupes au sol), la Russie, la Chine, l'Arabie saoudite et l'Iran interviennent de plus en plus dans les affaires de leurs voisins.

Dans les années 1990, après les génocides au Rwanda et dans les Balkans, les pays occidentaux ont développé une doctrine de justification des interventions dites "humanitaires". Cette doctrine, la Responsabilité de protéger, tient les Etats pour responsables du bien-être de leur population et exige de la communauté internationale qu'elle intervienne si l'un d'eux ne protége pas les civils présents sur son territoire contre des atrocités de masse – ou si lui-même menace la population civile. Cette doctrine remettant en question le concept traditionnel de souveraineté nationale, des pays comme la Russie et la Chine l'ont rapidement considérée comme une simple feuille de vigne destinée à camoufler des changements de régime manigancés par l'Occident.

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