Russian planes Pavel Bednyakov/ Xinhua via ZUMA Press

新干涉主义者

慕尼黑—俄罗斯干涉叙利亚的后果远远不止于中东。克里姆林宫的军事行动使得僵局想政府倾斜,也导致结束战争的政治妥协无法形成。它也标志着地缘政治新时期的到来,大规模军事干涉不再由西方联盟实施,而是由为了满足有悖于国际法的自身狭隘利益的国家实施。

自冷战结束以来,关于国际军事行动的争论的双方是强大的干涉主义西方力量和较弱的俄罗斯和中国。俄罗斯和中国领导人认为国家主权神圣不可侵犯。叙利亚局势的发展进一步证明了形势正在变化。西方正在失去干涉的兴趣——特别是派遣地面部队干涉——而俄罗斯、中国、伊朗和沙特阿拉伯正在越来越多地干涉邻国事务。

20世纪90年代,卢旺达和巴尔干半岛发生种族灭绝后,西方国家制订了所谓的人道主义干涉原则。“保护责任”(简称“R2P”)规定各国有责任保护人民的福祉,并要求国际社会在政府无法保护公民免遭大规模暴力侵犯——或政府本身威胁到平民时实施干涉。这一原则颠覆了传统国家主权概念,在俄罗斯和中国等国家,它很快就成为西方敌对势力试图颠覆政权的代名词。

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