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Internet oder Splitternet?

CAMBRIDGE – Wem gehört eigentlich das Internet? Allen und gleichzeitig niemandem. Das Internet ist ein Netzwerk der Netzwerke. Und diese Netzwerke gehören jeweils unterschiedlichen Unternehmen und Organisationen. Sie liegen auf physischen Servern in verschiedenen Ländern mit einer Vielfalt von Gesetzen und Regulierungen. Aber ohne einige gemeinsame Regeln und Normen können diese Netzwerke nicht effektiv miteinander verbunden werden. In der Fragmentierung – die das Ende des Internets bedeuten würde – liegt eine ernste Bedrohung.

Für 2016 wird der wirtschaftliche Beitrag des Internets zum weltweiten BIP auf 4,2 Billionen Dollar geschätzt. Ein fragmentiertes „Splitternetz“ käme die Welt sehr teuer, aber dies ist nur eines der möglichen Zukunftsszenarien, die letzten Monat im Bericht der Globalen Kommission zur Verwaltung des Internets unter der Leitung des ehemaligen schwedischen Ministerpräsidenten Carl Bildt vorgestellt wurden. Das Internet verbindet heute fast die Hälfte der Weltbevölkerung miteinander, und es wird erwartet, dass in den nächsten fünf Jahren eine weitere Milliarde dazu kommt – ebenso wie etwa 20 Milliarden Geräte.

Aber die zukünftige Ausbreitung ist kein Selbstläufer. Im schlimmsten Szenario der Kommission könnten die Menschen aufgrund krimineller Handlungen und politischer Regierungskontrollen das Vertrauen ins Internet verlieren und seine Benutzung einschränken.

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