La connectivité pour tous

OXFORD Au cours de la dernière décennie, le nombre d’internautes a triplé. Néanmoins, alors même qu’une large majorité de la population mondiale demeure non connectée, l’expansion d’Internet a vu son rythme ralentir nettement ces dernières années. La révolution Internet serait-elle en perte de vitesse ?

Entre 2005 et 2008, le nombre d’internautes a augmenté à un taux annuel cumulé de 15,1 %, portant le nombre d’internautes à 2,7 milliards. Or, d’après un récent rapport du McKinsey Global Institute, cette croissance de l’Internet serait retombée à 10,4 % en 2010-2013. Étant donné les bienfaits économiques considérables de la connectivité, il est indispensable que la mise en œuvre de moyens permettant de fournir un accès Internet aux quatre milliards d’individus restants constitue l’une de nos priorités.

Bien entendu, cela ne sera pas chose facile. Près des trois quarts des personnes non connectées – 3,4 milliards d’individus – sont réparties dans tout juste 20 pays. En 2012, environ 64 % d’entre elles vivaient en zone rurale, contre seulement 24 % des utilisateurs d’Internet, tandis que près de la moitié vivaient en dessous du revenu médian et du seuil de pauvreté de leur pays. Quelque 18 % étaient âgées de plus de 54 ans, contre près de 7 % pour la population connectée, et environ 28 % étaient illettrées, là où le taux d’alphabétisation des utilisateurs d’Internet avoisine les 100 %. Enfin, les femmes constituaient 52 % de la population non connectée, et seulement 42 % de la population utilisatrice d’Internet.

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