El porqué del éxito de Turquía

NUEVA YORK – Una visita reciente a Turquía me hizo pensar otra vez en sus enormes éxitos económicos de la última década. El país viene manteniendo un veloz crecimiento económico, la desigualdad está en disminución y hay un auge innovador.

Los logros de Turquía son aún más notables cuando se piensa en su situación geográfica. Al oeste están Chipre y Grecia, países ambos en el epicentro de la crisis de la eurozona. Al sudeste se encuentra Siria, un país desgarrado por una guerra que ya expulsó a casi 400.000 refugiados a Turquía. En el este están Irak e Irán. Y al noreste, Armenia y Georgia. Sería difícil hallar en todo el mundo un vecindario más complicado.

Sin embargo, Turquía logró hacer grandes progresos en medio de esta región convulsionada. Tras la marcada caída de 1999-2001, la economía ha sostenido una media de crecimiento del 5% anual desde 2002 a 2012. El país se mantuvo en paz a pesar de las guerras regionales. Aprendió las lecciones del colapso bancario de 2000-2001 y logró que sus bancos se sustrajeran al ciclo de altibajos de la década anterior. La desigualdad está en disminución. Y el partido gobernante ganó tres elecciones generales consecutivas, logrando en cada una de ellas una proporción mayor del voto popular.

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