Il successo della Turchia

NEW YORK – Una recente visita in Turchia mi ha ricordato gli enormi successi economici raggiunti da questo Paese nell’ultimo decennio. L’economia è cresciuta rapidamente, la disuguaglianza è in calo e l’innovazione è in ascesa.

I risultati raggiunti dalla Turchia sono tanto più sorprendenti se si considerano i Paesi vicini. Ad occidente, Cipro e Grecia sono l’epicentro della crisi dell’euro. A sudest c’è la Siria, lacerata dalla guerra, che ha già riversato quasi 400.000 rifugiati in Turchia. A est ci sono Iraq e Iran. E a nordest Armenia and Georgia. È difficile trovare nel mondo un altro vicinato più complicato di questo.

Eppure la Turchia ha fatto dei passi notevoli nonostante le rivolte regionali. Dopo una brusca contrazione nel 1999-2001, l’economia è cresciuta del 5% l’anno in media dal 2002 al 2012. È rimasta in un clima di pace, malgrado le guerre regionali. Le sue banche hanno evitato il ciclo boom-bust del decennio passato, avendo appreso la lezione dal collasso bancario del 2000-2001. La disuguaglianza è in calo. E il governo ha vinto tre elezioni generali consecutive, ogni volta con un’alta percentuale di voto popolare.

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