Warum es der Türkei so gut geht

NEW YORK – Ein aktueller Besuch in der Türkei hat mir die enormen wirtschaftlichen Erfolge des Landes während des letzten Jahrzehnts erneut ins Gedächtnis gerufen. Die türkische Wirtschaft ist rapide gewachsen, die Ungleichheit geht zurück, und die Innovationstätigkeit nimmt zu.

Die türkischen Leistungen sind umso bemerkenswerter, wenn man sich die Nachbarschaft des Landes ansieht. Im Westen stehen Zypern und Griechenland im Epizentrum der Krise in der Eurozone. Im Südosten liegt das kriegsgeplagte Syrien, aus dem bereits fast 400.000 Flüchtlinge in die Türkei geströmt sind. Im Osten liegen Irak und Iran. Und im Nordosten liegen Armenien und Georgien. Falls es auf der Welt eine kompliziertere Nachbarschaft gibt, sie wäre schwer zu finden.

Trotzdem hat die Türkei inmitten der regionalen Verwerfungen bemerkenswerte Fortschritte erzielt. Nach einem steilen Abschwung in den Jahren 1999-2001 hat die Konjunktur zwischen 2002 und 2012 jährlich durchschnittlich 5% zugelegt. Im Land herrscht trotz regionaler Kriege weiter Frieden. Die türkischen Banken haben aus dem Bankenzusammenbruch der Jahre 2000-2001 gelernt und den Boom-Bust-Zyklus des letzten Jahrzehnts vermieden. Die Ungleichheit sinkt. Und die Regierung hat drei aufeinander folgende Parlamentswahlen gewonnen, jedes Mal mit einem größeren Anteil der Stimmen.

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