Les secrets de la réussite de la Turquie

NEW-YORK – Un récent séjour en Turquie m'a permis de constater de visu la formidable réussite économique de ce pays depuis dix ans. Il se développe rapidement, les inégalités diminuent et l'innovation est encouragée.

Sa réussite est d'autant plus remarquable si on considère la Turquie dans son contexte géopolitique. A l'ouest Chypre et la Grèce sont à l'épicentre de la crise de la zone euro. Au sud-est, la Syrie est en proie à une guerre qui a déjà entraîné l'arrivée de presque de 400 000 réfugiés sur son territoire. A l'est on trouve l'Irak et l'Iran, et au nord-est l'Arménie et la Géorgie. Il serait difficile de trouver un environnement plus problématique !

Malgré cette situation, la Turquie a réalisé des avancées remarquables. Après un fort ralentissement en 1999-2001, sa croissance annuelle a été de 5% en moyenne entre 2002 et 2012. Malgré toute la violence dont elle est entourée, elle est restée en paix. Ayant retenu la leçon de l'effondrement de ses banques durant la période 2000-2001, ces dernières ont évité le cycle de booms et de faillites de la décennie précédente. Son gouvernement a remporté trois élections législatives consécutives, avec un score de plus en plus élevé  à chaque fois.

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