Nuovi campi di battaglia nel settore del finanziamento allo sviluppo

PRETORIA – La popolarità delle partnership tra pubblico e privato a sostegno dello sviluppo delle infrastrutture nei paesi emergenti sta crescendo a livello mondiale. Il G-20 sostiene queste partnership con l’obiettivo di incoraggiare la crescita globale e la creazione di nuovi posti di lavoro. Le economie cosiddette BRIC (Brasile, Russia, India, Cina e Sudafrica) vedono queste partnership come un modo per costruire infrastrutture essenziali in tempi rapidi e a basso costo, mentre le Nazioni Unite sperano invece che queste partnership possano fornire gli strumenti necessari per realizzare gli obiettivi dell’agenda di sviluppo globale post-2015. L’attrattiva delle partnership tra pubblico e privato potrebbe ridefinire non solo lo sviluppo dell’economia, ma anche il rapporto complessivo tra paesi ricchi e poveri, anche se non necessariamente in meglio.

Il carro delle partnership tra pubblico e privato ha tre componenti essenziali: un flusso consistente di fondi per le infrastrutture (sostenuto dai fondi pensione e altri fondi importanti), la creazione di “condotti” di progetti redditizi finanziati da queste partnership volti a sfruttare le materie prime dei paesi, e lo smantellamento delle politiche a tutela sociale ed ambientale. Ciascun elemento deve essere monitorato attentamente di pari passo all’ampliamento dell’utilizzo di queste pratiche.

La Banca Mondiale sta già cercando di raddoppiare il fondo prestiti entro i prossimi dieci anni espandendo i progetti sulle infrastrutture. La sua nuova piattaforma, la Global Infrastructure Facility (GIF), dovrebbe aiutare a mobilitare i fondi sovrani e i fondi pensione globali a favore di investimenti nelle infrastrutture sotto forma di attività specifiche.

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