Nieuwe slagvelden in de ontwikkelingsfinanciering

PRETORIA – De populariteit van publiek-private partnerschappen (PPPs) ter bevordering van de ontwikkeling van de infrastructuur in opkomende landen neemt wereldwijd toe. De G-20 steunt PPPs om de mondiale groei aan te jagen en banen te scheppen. De BRICS-economieën (Brazilië, Rusland, India, China en Zuid-Afrika) zien ze als een manier om snel en goedkoop essentiële infrastructuur te bouwen. De Verenigde Naties hopen dat infrastructuur-PPPs de middelen zullen bieden ter verwezenlijking van de ontwikkelingsagenda van na 2015. De nieuwe aantrekkingskracht van PPPs zou niet alleen de ontwikkelingseconomieën kunnen herdefiniëren, maar ook de totale betrekkingen tussen rijke en arme landen – hoewel niet per se altijd ten goede.

De PPP-structuur bestaat uit drie essentiële componenten: een explosie van infrastructuurfinanciering (gesteund door pensioenfondsen en andere grote fondsen); de creatie van 'pijpleidingen' van lucratieve mega-PPP-projecten om de grondstoffen van landen te exploiteren; en de eliminatie van ecologische en sociale waarborgen. Ieder daarvan moet zorgvuldig in de gaten worden gehouden als het gebruik van PPPs toeneemt.

De Wereldbank probeert al haar kredietverlening binnen tien jaar te verdubbelen door haar infrastructuurprojecten uit te breiden. Haar nieuwe Global Infrastructure Facility (GIF) zal de mondiale pensioen- en staatsfondsen mobiliseren om in infrastructuur te beleggen als een specifieke vermogensklasse.

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