发展金融的新战场

比勒陀利亚—新兴国家公私合作支持基础设施开发的风潮正在走向世界。二十国集团支持公私合作提振全球增长和就业创造。金砖经济体(巴西、俄罗斯、印度、中国和南非)将公私合作视为迅速廉价地建设关键基础设施的方法。联合国希望基础设施公私合作能成为实现其2015年后全球发展日程的途径。公私合作的新诉求不仅可能重写发展经济学,还可能重塑整个富国与穷国的关系——尽管未必朝积极的方向发展。

公私合作风潮有三个关键组成部分:基础设施金融大爆发(背后是退休基金和其他大资金)、为有吸引力的大型公私合营工程创造“渠道”利用各国原材料;以及对环境和社会保护措施的破坏。在公私合作的扩张过程中,每一项都必须仔细监控。

世界银行计划在十年内通过扩大基础设施工程让其贷款规模增加一倍。其新成立的全球基础设施便利(Global Infrastructure Facility,GIF)将动员全球退休基金和主权财富基金投资作为具体资产类别的基础设施。

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