Призрак дефляции

КЕМБРИДЖ – Ведущие центральные банки мира в настоящее время одержимы целью повышения их национальных уровней инфляции к их общей цели размером около 2% в год. Это происходит в Соединенных Штатах, где годовой уровень инфляции составил -0,1% за последние 12 месяцев; в Соединенном Королевстве, где последние данные показывают, что рост цен составляет 0,3%; и в еврозоне, где потребительские цены упали на 0,6%. Но настоящая ли эта проблема?

Резкое снижение цен за энергию является основной причиной недавнего падения уровня инфляции. В США, основной показатель инфляции (который не считает изменения в неустойчивых ценах на энергоносители и продукты питания) составил 1,6% в течение последних 12 месяцев. Кроме того, Федеральная резервная система США, Банк Англии, и Европейский центральный банк понимают, что даже если цены за энергию не поднимутся в наступающем году, стабильный уровень цен на нефть и другие виды энергоносителей вызовут рост инфляции.

В США, уровень инфляции был также подавлен из-за роста стоимости доллара по отношению к евро и другим валютам, что привело к тому, что импортные цены снижаются. Это тоже является «эффектом уровня», подразумевая, что инфляция будет расти, как только курс доллара перестает расти.

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