Hipster with mobile phone.

La logique inexorable de l'économie de partage

MILAN – Quand Amazon a été fondée en 1994 et eBay l'année suivante, ces entreprises ont exploité la connectivité d'Internet pour créer de nouveaux marchés plus efficaces. Au début cela signifiait de nouvelles manières d'acheter et de vendre des livres et objets de collection. Mais maintenant le commerce électronique est partout et propose aux clients des produits nouveaux et d'occasion. Il devient ainsi une force mondiale en logistique et en commerce de détail. De même, bien que certaines entreprises d'économie partage actuelles n'en soient qu'à leurs balbutiements, leurs services seront un jour omniprésents.

À l'heure actuelle, la plupart des gens ont entendu parler d'Airbnb, le service de location d'appartement en ligne. Cette société n'emploie que 600 personnes, mais répertorie 1 million de propriétés à louer, ce qui la rend plus importante que les plus grandes chaînes d'hôtels du monde. Bien sûr, l'offre d'Airbnb est différente de celle des hôtels. Mais si Airbnb se mettait à proposer des options, comme par exemple du service d'étage ou de la nourriture, cette entreprise pourrait bien devenir un concurrent plus proche qu'on ne le croyait.

La vision sous-jacente au modèle d'Airbnb, évidente avec le recul (et avec l'éclosion de l'économie de partage en général), est que le monde regorge de ressources et d'actifs sous-utilisés. Combien de temps nous passons-nous effectivement à utiliser les choses (automobiles, bicyclettes, appartements, résidences, outils ou yachts), que nous possédons ? Quelle valeur produisent les immeubles de bureaux ou les salles de classe durant la nuit ?

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