Die Ungleichheit und ihre Unzufriedenen

Weltweit scheint unter den politischen Führungen die Überzeugung zu herrschen, dass Ungleichheit und Mangel an einer umfassenden Teilhabe am Wirtschaftswachstum, wenn man sie auf Dauer zulässt, zu sozialer Zwietracht und sogar Gewalt führen. Aber ist das Problem wirklich die Ungleichheit selbst?

Der indische Ministerpräsident Manmohan Singh erklärte hierzu auf der im vergangenen Dezember in Neu-Dehli abgehaltenen Internationalen Konferenz der Dalits und Minderheiten: „Selbst in Fällen, in denen die Armut absolut gesehen durch Wachstum verringert wird, kann sich die Ungleichheit verschärfen, was sich politisch und gesellschaftlich extrem destabilisierend auswirken kann.“ Indien, so Singh, müsse also „Schritte zur Verringerung der gesellschaftlichen und wirtschaftlichen Ungleichheit unternehmen, ohne den Wachstumsprozess zu beschädigen und ohne die dem Einzelnen gebotenen Anreize zu unternehmerischem Handeln und Kreativität zu reduzieren.“

In ähnlicher Weise äußerte sich im Januar auf dem Weltwirtschaftsforum in Davos der brasilianische Präsident Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva: „Wirtschaftliches Wachstum, Schaffung von Arbeitsplätzen und Umverteilung werden dafür sorgen, dass wir in einer friedlichen Welt leben.“ Lula sprach sich in diesem Zusammenhang dafür aus, die Schranken für Agrarexporte zu senken, um den Armen in den Entwicklungsländern zu helfen.

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