La política industrial regresa de la tumba

PALO ALTO – Una de las peores respuestas de las autoridades a la crisis financiera y la profunda recesión  ha sido revivir la "política industrial". Una vez más, los gobiernos están usando subsidios, mandatos, regulación e inversión de capital para elegir a los ganadores y perdedores industriales, en lugar de apelar a una estrategia amplia y equitativa.

La nueva ronda de política industrial está teniendo lugar en economías avanzadas como Estados Unidos y el Reino Unido, que resistieron durante mucho tiempo sus peores excesos, en Francia, que por mucho tiempo promocionó a las empresas nacionales, y en economías emergentes como Brasil y China. Por ejemplo, el presidente francés, Nicolas Sarkozy, planea pedir prestados 52.000 millones de euros para promover lo que su gobierno supone que serán, o espera que sean, "industrias de crecimiento". Incluso los bancos centrales, especialmente la Reserva Federal de Estados Unidos, han estado respaldando a determinadas empresas y tipos de activos por la crisis financiera.

La política industrial les está resultando atractiva a los políticos que pueden favorecer a sectores clave al mismo tiempo que dicen estar ayudando a la economía en su totalidad. Pero normalmente esto causa más daños que beneficios.

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