France chicken farm Fred Tanneau/Stringer

Vegetales para combatir el hambre

BERLIN – La manera en que comemos en el mundo industrializado es poco sana, injusta e insostenible. Una proporción demasiado alta de la carne que consumimos se produce en condiciones ecológicas, éticas y sociales cuestionables. Y ahora exportamos nuestro modelo industrial de producción cárnica al sur global (especialmente China e India), entre cuyas clases medias se está elevando su consumo.

En todo el mundo se producen 300 millones de toneladas de carne al año, y la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura estima que la cifra llegará a los 455 millones de toneladas para 2050 si la demanda sigue creciendo al ritmo actual. Son volúmenes tan grandes que solo se pueden producir a escala industrial y con altos costes sociales, políticos y ecológicos.

La producción de carne es un uso tremendamente ineficiente del suelo agrícola, porque para alimentar el ganado se necesita mucho más pienso vegetal que el que necesitaríamos para alimentarnos directamente con una dieta herbívora. Por ejemplo, para producir un kilogramo de carne de pollo, cerdo o vacuno se requieren 1,6, tres y ocho kilogramos de pienso respectivamente, lo que genera un enfrentamiento directo entre los agricultores y los productores de pienso al competir por tierras.

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