Indonesiens gemäßigte Muslime

Der Islam in Indonesien ist mit seinen 200 Millionen Mitgliedern die größte muslimische Glaubensgemeinschaft der Welt, doch die dort praktizierte Form des Islam wird zunehmend als sehr unterschiedlich zu jenem Islam betrachtet, wie er in den alten muslimischen Gemeinschaften des Nahen Ostens ausgeübt wird. Tatsächlich hat der bedeutende Wissenschaftler Bassam Tibi von der Universität Göttingen, Indonesien als „Modell religiös und ethnokulturell unterschiedlicher Gemeinschaften“ beschrieben, die „in Frieden und gegenseitigem Respekt zusammenleben“.

Manche Historiker sind der Ansicht, die gemäßigte Form des Islam in Indonesien wäre auf die Art und Weise zurückzuführen, wie ihn Händler aus fremden Ländern schon im 14. Jahrhundert dort einführten. Zu dieser Zeit kannte man in der dortigen Küstenkultur bereits Gleichheit, Dynamik und Interdependenz und dies wirkte sich auf die Ideologie und Praxis des Islam aus. Darüber hinaus war der indonesische Islam stark sufistischen Einflüssen ausgesetzt, die eher die spirituellen als die rechtlichen Elemente des Glaubens hervorhoben.

Auch Giora Eliraz von der Hebräischen Universität argumentiert, dass sich die aus dem Nahen Osten stammenden islamischen Vorstellungen in Indonesien veränderten und einen inklusiveren und pluralistischeren Charakter annahmen, was auf den Einfluss des großen ägyptischen Reformers des 19. Jahrhunderts, Mohammed Abduh, zurückzuführen ist. In Ägypten wurden Abduhs progressive Ideen nur von einer winzigen Gruppe von Reformern unterstützt. In Indonesien allerdings führten Abduhs Visionen einer islamischen Moderne zur Schaffung der größten muslimischen Organisation der Neuzeit, der Muhammadiyah, welche den Mainstream des gemäßigten Islam in Indonesien repräsentiert.

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