L'islam modéré d'Indonésie

Avec ses 200 millions d'habitants, l'Indonésie est le premier pays musulman du monde. Dans ce pays, la pratique de l'islam est très différente de celle que l'on trouve dans les vieilles communautés musulmanes du Moyen-Orient. Bassam Tibi, un universitaire réputé de l'université de Gottingen, la présente comme "un modèle permettant la coexistence harmonieuse de communautés différentes par leur religion, leur ethnie et leur culture".

Certains historiens disent que l'Islam modéré d'Indonésie traduit la manière dont il a été introduit au 14° siècle par les marchands venus de l'étranger. A cette époque, la population côtière avait déjà intégré dans sa culture les notions d'égalité, de dynamisme et d'interdépendance qui a influé sur l'idéologie et la pratique de l'islam. D'autre part, l'islam indonésien a fortement été marqué par le soufisme qui insiste sur les éléments spirituels de la foi, plutôt que sur ses prescriptions juridiques.

Selon Giora Eliraz de l'université hébraïque, sous l'influence du grand réformateur égyptien du 19° siècle, Mohammad Abduh, l'islam venu du Moyen-Orient s'est transformé en Indonésie, devenant plus ouvert et pluraliste. Si en Egypte seul un petit groupe de réformateurs a soutenu les idées progressistes de Mohammad Abduh, en Indonésie, sa vision de l'islam a entraîné la création de la plus grande organisation musulmane de type moderniste du pays, Muhammadiyah, qui représente le courant principal de l'islam modéré en Indonésie.

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