印度尼西亚的温和穆斯林

伊斯兰教在印度尼西亚拥有2亿信徒,成就了全世界最庞大的穆斯林社会。而这一支伊斯兰教正日益明显的表现出其与中东地区更为古老的穆斯林社会所信奉的伊斯兰教的差异。的确,一位杰出的学者,Gottingen大学的Bassam Tibi将印尼描述为“不同宗教和族裔文化的社群和平共处及相互尊重的典范。”

一些历史学家认为印尼的这种温和的伊斯兰教形态反应了早在14世纪时外国商人将其引入当地的方式。那时,当地的沿海文化已经吸纳了平等主义、物力论和相互依靠,这些思想都对伊斯兰教的意识形态和实践方式产生了影响。此外,印尼的伊斯兰教受到了苏菲派的重大影响。该教派强调信仰的精神层面而不是法律因素。

无独有偶,Hebrew大学的Giora Eliraz认为从中东引入印尼的伊斯兰教理念发生了变化。在19世纪伟大的埃及改革家Muhammad Abduh的影响下,它变得更具包容性和更为多元化。在埃及,Abduh的进步理念只得到了极小部分改革者的支持。然而在印尼,Abduh关于伊斯兰现代性的先见之明促成了该国最大的现代派穆斯林组织,Muhammadiyah的创立。该组织代表了印尼主流的温和派伊斯兰教。

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