El milagro democrático de Indonesia

YAKARTA.- Los milagros modernos sí existen. Hace diez años, mientras la crisis financiera asiática destruía la economía indonesia, muchos expertos predijeron que el país se desestabilizaría, si no es que se dividiría. En cambio, Indonesia, el país islámico más poblado del mundo, ha surgido como un ejemplo de democracia y libertad para el mundo musulmán. ¿Qué pasó? ¿Y por qué el mundo no ha tomado nota?

La historia es tan compleja como la misma Indonesia. Benedict Anderson, destacado experto en ese país, dice que las raíces del carácter de Indonesia se encuentran en el centro de la cultura javanesa, en particular en la tradición religiosa wayang. Según Anderson, “A diferencia de las grandes religiones del cercano oriente…la religión del wayang no tiene profeta ni mensaje ni Biblia ni redentor…La infinita variedad y marcada individualidad de sus personajes indican que el wayang refleja la multiplicidad de la vida humana tal como la sienten los javaneses…” En resumen, la cultura javanesa ayuda a Indonesia a comprender las numerosas voces que se escuchan cuando surge una nueva democracia.

También existe una fuerte tradición indonesia de resolver los desacuerdos mediante la “musyawarah dan mufakat” (negociación y consenso). Por supuesto, esta tradición no siempre ha evitado la violencia, principalmente durante la matanza tras el golpe de Estado contra el presidente Sukarno en 1966. Y hace diez años, durante la crisis financiera, nuevamente tuvieron lugar revueltas violentas contra los chinos, lo que provocó que muchos de ellos huyeran del país.

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